طبقه بندی موضوعی

۶ مطلب در ارديبهشت ۱۳۹۴ ثبت شده است

یکم. واژگان (الفاظ)

یکم.یک. نیازمندی به واژگان

اندیشه به واژگان از این سو نیازمند است که:

آ) برای آدمیان، واژگان آسان‌ترین روش رساندن اندیشه‌ی خویش  به دیگران هستند.

ب) چگونگی بازگو نمودنِ واژگان، توانایی دگرگون‌سازی پندار‌ها (مفاهیم) را دارند. 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۶ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۰۶:۲۷

یکم. شناسه (تعریف)

دانش ترازو (علم منطق) دات‌هایی (قوانینی) است که به‌کار‌بستن آن‌ها آدمی را از نادرستی در اندیشه بازمی‌دارد. به زبانی دیگر، دانشِ ترازو روش درست اندیشیدن را می‌آموزد. 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۵ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۲۱:۱۷

As a response and alternative to Cartesian dualism, behaviourism was the widely accepted interpretation of human mind activities for most of the twentieth-century. Ryle as an analytical behaviourism philosopher argued that mental terms represent the style of behaviours or dispositions, not the internal states (Ryle, 2009, pp. 1-13). In contrary, Fodor questioned if Ryle’s theory can address all human behaviours as there are many mental terms that their dispositional versions require some other mental terms. He appended that, even though, all mental conditions can be analysed to their dispositional forms, it only defines mental terms while, on the other hand, psychology looks for causal analysis of mental activities. Fodor accused Ryle of confusing between conceptual and causal theories about the mind. 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۵ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۱۹:۵۲

In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes argued that the mind and the body are independent but inter-correlated while the mind can exist without the body; what is known as essential dualism. Based on this theory, the mind is not a material thing because it has none of the properties that material things have such as spatiality and divisibility. However, there are some facts that challenge Descartes’ idea of the immateriality of the mind as well as its independence from the body. One of those facts that dualism cannot explain is what happens to some brain damaged people (Descartes, 2008, p. 14). 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۵ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۱۹:۳۴

Descartes’ explore for certainty started out with doubts. He professed that as he had admitted many false opinions as true, his knowledge is dubitable; hence his beliefs are based on unsettled assumptions. Thus, he decided to reconstruct his views upon sound principles. Descartes wisely undermined the foundations of his understandings so that the rest of his thoughts would collapse consequently. To do so, he tackled the validity of senses-acquired knowledge. He also considered the possibility of being deceived, not only about the testimony of the senses, but also about the truth of arithmetical axioms and logical principles (Descartes, 2008, p. 14). 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۵ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۱۹:۲۵

In Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes articulated his project toward finding indubitable knowledge by doubting all his beliefs. He did that by introducing an evil spirit devoted to deceiving humans (Descartes, 1984, p. 17). Some hundred years later, Buowsma challenged the role of the evil spirit in Descartes’ project by proposing two possible scenarios for the evil demon to produce illusions. He argued that none of these illusions work, as one is recognisable, so no longer will remain an illusion, and the other is not recognisable at all. If Buowsma is right, the aim of the demon’s tricks to plant the seed of scepticism in the human mind is not achievable (Bouwsm, 1949, p. 141). 

۰ نظر موافقین ۰ مخالفین ۰ ۱۵ ارديبهشت ۹۴ ، ۱۸:۴۸