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Nietzsche on Monotheism and Polytheism - Note

دوشنبه, ۲۸ تیر ۱۳۹۵، ۰۹:۲۴ ق.ظ

Nietzsche’s pen in The Gay Science, s.125, resurrects Diogenes the Cynic in the form of a wise madman who despite the light of day lit a lantern, running around the market, looking for God! 

The most important points that Nietzsche may intend to convey by expressing ‘the death of God’ can be found in this phrase: “Since many of those who did not believe in God were standing around together just then, he [the madman] caused great laughter.” Based on this it can be told that the society which Nietzsche is describing here is unfamiliar with God and its members “do not believe in God” while at the same time they do not know what happened that God became as departed in the society as it is now. The madman’s illustration of God-human relation is crucial also when the madman claims that ‘we’ unchained earth (humans) from the sun (God), and after that, we are walking away from the sun unsteadily. It means the manifestations of religion and God have no further authoritative roles in society, except being the tombs of God, anymore! 

He extends the notion of ‘the death of God’ in s.343 by articulating, perfectly literally, the consequences of having a dead God for Christianity and Europe. First of all, the society without God means the society without an already long-established source of truthfulness and morality. It means doubt, scepticism and mistrustful are widespread. So the inevitable consequence for people who used to live with grasping to truth and morals is seeking for a new source of truth, and a new foundation for morality. However, as Nietzsche discussed, science as a possible successor also rests on ‘faith’ because it is impossible to have a ‘presupposition-less’ kind of it. Furthermore, the very first stem of the need for a successor like science raised as an answer to a challengeable need of humans to ‘truth’, as they used to have: God! Nietzsche names this need ‘the will to truth’ or ‘truth at any price’. Similarly, it can be asked ‘why morality at all?’ He continues by implicitly answering that our inclination toward science is a sort of metaphysical faith which we presume it divine, and it has been lit by an old faith in God. However, what if the God, truth, and morality were all lies?

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